SWISS ANCESTORS OF ABRAHAM FLURY
INTRODUCTION TO THE SWISS FLURY FAMILY
This is an update to the Swiss Ancestors of ABRAHAM FLURY/FLORY (1710-1777) and his father JACOB FLURY (ca 1681-aft 1749) who lived in Berks County before moving to Hellam Twp, York County PA. Recent research has revealed much more information about this family.
ABRAHAM and his father JACOB descend from a unique family that lived in HAEGENDORF (CANTON SOLOTHURN) SWITZERLAND. Their oldest ancestor Heinrich Fluri, born about 1532, was the first in the family to own an inn and tavern. He and members of his family operated the tavern more than 70 years. The Flury family attended the Catholic Church in Haegendorf and Flury descendents are buried there. This church had its roots in the first millennium. On Page 18 Hans Durst gives an interesting account of the ancient church of Haegendorf and the Counts of Lenzburg.
Heinrich Flury’s great-grandson, Uli Flury 3rd (born 1651) and some friends and relatives left Haegendorf. They went to LENZBURG CASTLE. Others from Haegendorf who went are the families of Frey, Fry, Wyss, Wuertz, Goim and Lack. Another family that lived at Lenzburg Castle was the Hans Durst family. The younger Hans Durst wrote about the history and building renovations made earlier by his ancestor Hans Durst and Peter Frey. Information about the Castle came from Hans Durst.
Bern is the capital city of Switzerland. The Bern officials were of the Reformed faith as was Uli and his daughter Anna. Uli’s other children became Anabaptists during their stay in the City of Lenzburg. They left Switzerland in the early 1700s under pressure of the Bern Government. Their destination was the Rhineland Palatinate in Germany. From there descendents of the Frey, Fry, Goim/Goin Frey, Lack and Wyss/Weiss families eventually made their way to PA and across the Susquehanna River to Lancaster County (now York County) to what was first called Hellam Township but is now called Wrightsville, York county, PA. where Jacob, Abraham and the Flury descendents lived.
SHIRLEY FLORA GAMBLE firstname.lastname@example.org Feb 20, 2008
HAEGENDORF (CANTON SOLOTHURN) SWITZERLAND
EXCERPTS FROM THE PFARRBUCH OF HAEGENDORF 1580
Parish records give the child’s name and christening date, the parents and godparents (one male, one female) who are usually family members or close friends. These are not birthdates but baptismal dates. The early records are in old Latin. The letters “I” and “J” are interchangeable with the “I” being Roman and the “J” being Swiss German. The first Flury birth listed is Johannes Flury, first son of Johannes Flury and Anna Lack in 1592. Ulrich, our direct line ancestor, was born in 1594. His name is spelled “Ulricum.”
Baptizium Ioannem Flury 9 Mai 1592
Parentes: Ioannus Flury, Anna Lack
Patrimi: Victor Zur Matten, Burg of Solothury,
Vogt zu Barckburg; Anna Schmiedin
Victor Zur Matten was at that time the official governor or representative (the “Vogt”) of the town of Solothurn. He had his residence at the castle of Bechburg in Oensingen. Only a member of the “noble” families” in Solothurn had the chance to become a “Vogt.” The baptism record above indicates that Johannes Fluri and Anna Lack must have had previous ties with the “Vogt.” So it can be assumed that the couple Flury-Lack belonged to a kind of “upper class” in the area of Haegendorf.
ANCESTORS OF JACOB AND ABRAHAM FLURY OF YORK CO
Some descendents of Abraham of York County are only interested in Abraham’s ancestors. It is confusing when family members have the same name. Some have asked that our direct line be indicated by a star. For these reasons, I have listed Ulrich’s line first even though he is the younger son.
*HEINRICH FLURY (ca 1532 – before 1611). He married the daughter of Ulli Lack. They had two sons: HANS (ca. 1562) and ULLI (ca. 1564). Ulli never married.
1*(HANS) JOHANNES had two sons named HANS (1592) and ULRICH (1594) and a sister named ANNA (18 SEPT 1596). Our direct ancestor is ULRICH and his descendents are listed below.
*2. ULRICH FLURY (ULI) (30 OCT 1594 – after 1652) m. ELISABETH GOMANCHANGER in 1620.
2.1 JOAS ULI (3 AUG 1621 “nome infunis” means death at birth. The + sign by a name means death.
*2.2 ULRICH (ULI) 2ND (27 NOV 1622) m. ANNA STUDER (died 1685)
2.21 ELISABETH (9 JUN 1648) m. PETER HEPHFAN
*2.22 ULRICH (ULI) 3rd (16 JUN 1651-bef 1733). Jacob Roteley and his wife ANNA LACK asked Uli to serve as a godparent to their son also named Ulrich. Ulrich Fury was age 19. This is the last time he appeared in the HAEGENDORF records. Uli and a group of his closest family and friends would later appear at Lenzburg Castle, Canton Bern.
2.23 BARBARA (31 MAY 1655-14 APR 1705)
2.34 ANNA (8 MAY 1655-23 APR 1695)
2.35 HEINRICH (2 JUN 1664-1729) m. 1st) ELISABETH LACK who died after 1699. He married 2nd MARIA ROEMISTALER 7 JUL 1704.
2.351 JOSEPH (DEC 10 1699) m. ANNA MARIE ZELTNER.
2.3511 HANS GEORG (10 NOV 1721).
2.3532 Heinrich (18 JAN 1723)
2.3543 JOSEPH (23 MAR 1725).
2.36 NICOLAUS (17 APR 1705). Not listed on future Haegendorf records. He may have moved to BAERSCHWIL at the same time as his cousins, the children of Uli 3rd above.
2.37 MARIA MAGDALENA (9 JAN 1705)
2.38 MADLE (2 MAY 1709)
2.39 CATHARINA (21 AUG 1712)
2.3 JOAS (13 MAY 1627) +
2.4 CATHARINA (29 AUG 1631). She may be the CATHARINA who married NICOLAI WIRTZ 15 JUN 1670
2.5 JOHANNES (8 JUN 1637 m. ELISABETH LACK MAY 1659
2.51 JOAN (SEPT 1661) No other information.
2.52 CASPER (14 JUN 1663) No other information.
2.53 UDALRICY) 9 MAR 1665) m. ANNA HEURY 20 FEB 1696
2.531 ANNA (24 JAN 1697
2.532 JACOB (4 APR 1701) m. CATHARINA SIGREST 22 NOV
1729. No other information.
2.54 ANNA (3 AUG 1666)
2.55 MARIA (8 NOV 1668)
2.56 BARBARA (25 SEPT) 1670)
2.57 JOAN HEINRICH (5 MAR 1672). No other information.
DESCENDENTS OF HANS FLURY (b. 1592)
1. HEINRICH (ca. 1532) m. daughter of ULLI LACK
1.1 JOHANNES (HANS) 2nd (ca 1562) m. 1st ANNA LACK died 5 FEB 1597. They had one son named Hans who is listed below. HANS married 2nd KUNGETT WEISS of Cappel. They had three children.
1.11 HANS (5 MAY 1592) (See below)
1.12 CHRISTIAN (4 JUN 1599) No other information.
1.13 BARBARA (5AUG 1602) No other information.
1.14 NICLAUS (CLAUS) (15 DEC 1603) m. MARIA ALBERA
1.141 ELISABETHA and 1.42 DORCIA (TWINS – 23 MAR 1626)
1.43 ELSBETH (8 JUN 1635)
1.11 HANS (b. 5 MAY 1592) m. ELISABETH KISLING
1.111 MELCHER FLURY (16 MAR 1624-1702) m. MARIA
WAGNER 15 NOV 1650.
1.1111 HEINRICH (1656). No other information.
1.1112 CATHARINA (d. 1657) (+ sign also means death)
1.1113 CATHARINA (1659)
1.1114 ANNA (1662)
1.1115 JOAN HEINRICH (1664). No information.
1.1116 MARIA (1667)
1.1117 DURS (1670) m. MARGARETHA PFLUGER
1.11171 JOSEPH (15 JUN 1695) +
1.11172 JOSEPH (21 OCT 1696) No other information.
1.11173 URS (DURS) (30 JUL 1702) m. MARIA BOBST
1.111731 ANNA MARIA (4 AUG 1734)
1.111732 HEINRICH (6 NOV 1737) m. MARIA PEIER
1.1117321 JOAN PETRUS (1 AUG 1765) +
1.1117322 ANNA MARIA ELIZ. (27 JUN 1767)
1.1117323 JOAN PETRUS (9 MAY 1770)
1.1117324 JOSEPH PUDENZ (19 MAY 1770)
1.1117325 ANNA MARIA (11 FEB 1774) +
1.1117326 JACOB (20 JUL 1776)
1.1117327 URS JOSEPH (2 NOV 1779
1.1117328 ANNA MARIA (20 MAR 1783)
1.1117329 MAGDALENA (7APR 1787)
1.11174 URS WERNER (27 MAY 1704) No information.
1.11175 ANNA MARIA (2 MAR 1708)
1.112 VICTOR (17 APR 1628) No other information.
1.113. ELISABETH (24 may 1630).
1.114 CATHARINA (JULY 1633)
The source of the above information is microfilm from the LDS Family History Library in St. Lake, Utah: Kirchenbuch, 1580, Authors Katholische Kirche Haegendorf (Solothurn). It is a mixture of Latin and Swiss German.
Another valuable source of information about our ancestors is the “Tavern Document” by Paul Hofer entitled: “Das einstige Gasthaus, SONNE in Haegendorf 1586-1860; Jahrbuch fuer Solothurnische Geschichte (1966).” Mr. Hofer obtained official legal records concerning the licensure of the tavern from the archives housed in Solothurn, the Capital of the Canton. These documents were written by the Vogt (official in charge). This article describes the first “Gashaus” (Guest House, Inn) in Haegendorf which was already known as far back as the year 1359.
The Flury family was part of a “Wirtefamilie” or dynasty which had the tavern over several generations. The right to operate the tavern was mostly written down in a document referred to as “Tavernbrief.” The Vogt had authority in the Bechburg district and resided in castle Bechburg at Oensingen. Hagendorf belonged to the Bechburg district.
“Sonne” (Sun) Inn and Tavern: In 1586 a new tavern called “Sonne” was built. The word “Wirt” is used to refer to the licensed owner or landlord. An old German dictionary says “Wirtshaus” is an inn and “Wirt” is the innkeeper. The building where the tavern was located is much too large to be just a tavern. It is assumed that it was both an inn and tavern. The first Wirt mentioned was Hans Wyss. He is the father-in-law of Heinrich Flury. Hans operated out of the old building that was replaced by the “Sonne.”
(1) Hans Wyss was the first Wirt recorded in the records.
(2) Ully Lack was the first Wirt of the Sonne. He married the daughter of Hans Wyss.
(3) HEINRICH FLURY (ca 1532-1611). He married the daughter of Ully Lack. Heinrich was the first in the Flury family to be called a Wirt keeper.
(4) JOHANNES (HANS) (ca 1562-abt 1634) and (5) ULRICH (ULLI) (ca 1564-1634). Uli Lack’s widow (maiden name Wyss) played a role in ensuring that her two grandsons jointly operated the tavern upon the death of their father. In 1611 Hans was age 49 and Ulrich was 47.
Hans Flury submitted an application to the authorities in the Bechburg District asking permission to renew their license to serve beer on tap. The Government official chose his brother Ulli as the landlord and approved it for a guest restaurant and public house. Ulli Flury, the landlord, now had his older brother as a business partner so that might be awkward.
August 30 1625 Ulli made improvements to the restaurant and public house. This tavern document is the only time this Ulrich (Ulli) is mentioned. Ulli died in 1634. If still living, Hans would have been about age 72 and Ulli 70.
(5) ULRICH (ULI) FLURY 2nd (b. 30 OCT 1594 – aft 1652). Uli was the Wirt beginning in September 1634 when he sold the tavern to Joggi Studer, a blacksmith in Haegendorf. From 1649 – 1652 Uli again owned the tavern. He was age 58 when he sold it the second time. .
(6) MELCHER FLURY (16 MAR 1592-1702) He was the Wirt from 1663-1670 and the son of Hans above whose application had been denied earlier in favor of his younger brother Ulli. His customers were pleased to have the tavern back in the Flury family. He reapplied and his application was again approved 23 JAN 1670. Melcher was age 78 when he retired.
ULRICH (ULI) FLURY 3RD (16 JUN 1651- before 1733)
LENZBURG CASTLE, CANTON BERN
No records of christenings, death dates or marriage dates have been found for any of the people who lived at Lenzburg Castle including the Vogt and his family. There was a medieval Chapel built in the 13/14th century but it was torn down and was not rebuilt until 1719. The children of Uli were born between 1681 -1693. Since Lenzburg Castle was of the Reformed faith they would have had a Pastor (or had access to a Pastor) who performed christenings, marriage, deaths and confirmations. What happened to the records is a mystery. It seems that these sacred records would have been in the possession of the Pastor or his assistants. It is not known if the Pastor stayed around Lenzburg or went to Bern when the Vogt and his staff left suddenly in advance the army of Napoleon.
The other possibility is the Pastor and his staff stayed in the local area. My attempts to find records both in Bern and around Lenzburg were futile. Several inquiries about church records at Aargau, Olten and other places were also futile. Records of Lenzburg Castle do exist. Hans Durst wrote an entire book about Lenzburg Castle.
Uli’s date of death is unknown. The name, birth date and death date of his wife is also unknown. She is probably a daughter of one of the families from Haegendorf. Lack or Wyss are strong possibilities. Their children were born at Lenzburg Castle. Their names are Jacob, Barbara, Catharina, Anna, Franz and Magdalena.
The last official record of Uli was 1670 in Haegendorf. He was age 19 and single. To get an idea of Uli’s age when he married, I used the Haegendorf Flury Family Register and selected 10 males to get the average age males had their first child. I was surprised to see it was about age 30. His brother Heinrich was unique in that he had his first child at age 35 in 1699.
If Uli married at age 30, all six of his children could have been born between 1681 and 1693 (12 year period). This seems realistic. Uli would have been age 30 – 42 during this period. There are no Haegendorf death records for years 1600 – 1685. Only four Flury death dates are known: Uli’s brother Heinrich died at age 65. His cousin Melcher was 78 when he retired (Tavern document). Hans Flury (1562-abt 1634) lived to about 72 years (tavern document). Heinrich Flury (1532-1611) lived to age 79. Based on this information, Uli probably lived to age 70 or later (1651- ca 1721). There is no proof that Uli went with his children to Germany.
The Hans Durst family recorded the history. There were four major buildings when Uli lived there that are still there today.
(1) Landvogtei (Judicial District). This large two story administrative building is where the Vogt and his staff worked. It is the largest building in the complex.
(2) Palas (Schloss, Castle). The Vogt’s building is near the castle which is smaller than I anticipated. The large front rooms are for entertaining dignitaries. The Vogt and his wife had separate bed rooms and sitting areas in the back. The 1735 estate settlement in the Rhineland Palatinate listed Anna Flory (Uli’s daughter) as “living in the rear of Castle Lenzburg.” Since the Vogt lived in the rear of the castle and Anna’s address was “the rear of the Castle,” to me that meant she was married to the Vogt. Given the long family history of associating with Vogts, she is more likely to marry a Vogt (bailiff, district official) than be employed by a Vogt.
(3) Knights Lodge. Very elegant and enormous. This building dominates the southwest area of the castle court. It has a large banquet room and long corridors leading to the sleeping quarters.
(4) Stapferhaus (Stable House). It once was a stable for the Knight’s horses. When Uli lived there, it was a storehouse and agricultural building. Now it is a stately and charming white three story chalet with red shutters. Conferences and special events are held here.
Other buildings and structures were the North Tower, South Tower, East Bastion, South Bastion, Well, Bakery, Washhouse, Arsenal, Guardhouse, North tower, Gatehouse and Chapel. The Chapel and some of the other minor buildings did not survive.
ULRICH (ULI) – SKILLS AND BACKGROUND
There are no records available that show what Uli’s actual role was during the years at Lenzburg Castle. He came from a prominent, well educated family that had established good relationships with many different Vogts (high officials) in his district and in the capital city of Solothurn. He was educated at a time when others were not. While his role may never be known, he may have been involved with many different projects through the years. Here are a few options:
1. MANAGEMENT/ADMINISTRATION. He may have worked in the Vogt’s office building. It is one of the largest buildings on the estate and would have required capable managerial staff. The Flury and Weiss families were familiar with the Flury Inn and Tavern and are known to have had good relationships with government officials. Good documentation was necessary. What is known about Lenzburg Castle today is evidence of excellent record keeping in the past that was submitted to government officials in the capital city of Bern for their review and authorization. The work of Han Durst in preserving the Lenzburg history also had an impact.
2. FOOD SUPPLIES AND BANQUETS: Given the number of people who needed food on a daily basis, someone had to oversee and delegate all aspects of the meal preparations. That would include growing vegetables and fruits, baking bread, providing staples and supplying drinks on a daily basis. Banquets and feasts would be held on special occasions. Given the family background of running a tavern and serving food, this is plausible.
3. CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MANAGEMENT. Ongoing repairs and new construction required the skills of managers, construction workers and grounds keepers.
MAJOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION (1672-1728)
1672: Vogt Immanuel von Graffenried arranged the construction of a new mansion with agreement of the Bern Council (Bldg. No. 9). It was connected perpendicular to the north of the old building. It now forms the east part of the old wing.
1705: David Salomon Sturler was named Vogt and probably held this position for many years. 1719: The economical boom of the 17th century provided the opportunity to build a church and city hall.
1728: Daniel Stuerler was named Vogt and he probably held the position for many years. The final big building arose upon orderfrom Bern. Again the opportunities for storage were expanded. The west and north front of the South tower were torn off except for a few meters above ground. A multi-level storage building, leaning toward the Knight’s mansion, was constructed on the stub (?) The Ahrburg-House was torn off and newly constructed. It was then combined under a single gable. This greatly improved the appearance. The builder Vogt Daniel Stuerler also left another classy piece of architecture: The staircase (Bldg. 9) prefixed to the north mansion.
ANABAPTIST MOVEMENT: Lenzburg Castle is completely surrounded by a massive stone wall that prohibited unwanted entry but also limited expansion. The Flury, Frey, Fry. Wyss, Wuertz, Lack, Goim and Durst family were there and possibly others. As the children of Uli and the other families matured, it is reasonable to assume they left the Castle due to lack of space and other reasons. Over the years the Vogts tried to make more space within the castle walls but had just reached their limits. The nearby town of Lenzburg is the logical place to go. It was unsafe to live in the unprotected country side.
An Anabaptist movement was going on in and around the town of Lenzburg. Rudolf Wuertz (b. 1638) lived at Lenzburg unter Kulm, (today known as the village Unterkulm in the district of Lenzburg, Canton), Aargau. He was an Anabaptist. He was in jail in 1659 and tried in court 20 JAN 1660. He was driven out of the country and taken by boat to Holland in 1660. His wife was Anna and they were living at Munchof, near Kaiserslautern, Germany in 1668 (R. W. Davis, Emigrants, Refugees and Prisoners, Vol. iii, p. 335). Uli’s children and the other families would also go to live in this same area.
Swiss officials in the Cantons of Zurich and Bern took strong aggressive measures to rid their country of Anabaptists. Around 1702 there were conflicts among two religious groups that had come from outside Lenzburg. These two factors influenced Anabaptist citizens to relocate to more remote areas and safe havens.
END OF THE SWISS REGIME AND 1797/98 FRENCH INVASION
The Bern government used the castle for 350 years as living quarters until 1798 when Napoleon invaded Switzerland. In 1804 the Swiss Confederation claimed the abandoned castle for the newly formed Canton of Aargau. Their use of the Castle was quite different from the Bern Era.
BAERSCHWILL AND DELEMONT
The children of ULI FLURY 3rd and the related families left Lenzburg. They made stops along the way to rest, obtain supplies and make needed repairs. They stopped at Hagendorf where their families lived before going on to Baerschwil, a safe haven for Anabaptists. Baerschwil was also the home of Peter Meyer who married Catharina, daughter of Uli Flury, Present and past residents of Baerschwil shop and conduct business in the town of Delemont, founded by Prince Bishop of Basle and was granted a municipal charter in 1289. After the Reformation it was a favorite residence of the Bishops of Basle. In 1978 it became the Swiss Canton of JURA.
BAERSCHWIL is beautiful and scenic with it gently rolling hills. It has large Swiss Chalets with green grass and colorful flowers in many varieties. The name Flury name is on several tombstones at the Catholic parish church and cemetery. They are almost identical to the ornate tombstones in Haegendorf. The large life size monument of Walter Flury lists his age as 80. His life size sculpture is of a tall, young man sowing seeds and wearing a hat, jacket, pants and shoes. I took pictures of five other Flury tombstones that were also very nice. The church is large and with special architectural details. Baby lambs and mooing cows with tinkling bells are heard in the distance. It is both beautiful and peaceful.
The JURA is a range of mountains lying north-west of the SWISS ALPS. It is also the central area of Swiss watch making.
ANCIENT CATHOLIC CHURCH OF HAEGENDORF AND
EXCERPTS FROM LENZBURG CASTLE by DR. HANS DURST
In 2002 I was pleasantly surprised learn that the ancient Catholic church of Haegendorf was still there. I had made pictures of the beautiful cemetery and made pictures of all of the families named Flury. I also took pictures of the large church with its clock tower, steeple and the 12 large arched windows. A man came outside and asked if I had relatives in the cemetery. I explained why I was there and said the church and cemetery were very beautiful. He pointed out the protrusion on the back of the church and the small steeple above. He said the large church was built around the first Haegendorf church which was very ancient.
The Catholic church of Haegendorf had its roots in the first millennium. This church was already known in a document from the year 1036 (“Graf Ulrich von Lenzburg schenkt seinem Enkel Arnold I das Stift Beromunster und weist unter anderem die Kirche Haegendorf dem Stift zum Unterhalt zu”: see Solothurner Urkundenbudh Band 1 Nr 7, Solothurn 1952).
Uli Flury 3rd and others left Haegendorf to go to Lenzburg Castle. It is a somewhat a historical occasion that about 600 years later families from Haegendorf again established relations with those at Lenzburg Castle: Dr. Hans Durst says Lenzburg castle is one of the oldest and most significantly highly situated castles in Switzerland. Again and again the waves of important political movements and historical events have left impressions on the castle’s walls.
In 1173 the Holenstaufen emperor Friedrich Barbarossa I, inherited the castle unexpectedly from the Lenzburg counts. In the same year he distributed his heritance. 700 year later the Wedekind family acquired the castle. The poet Frank grew up there and experienced his own “Fruehlingerwachen” (spring awakening). Between Barbarossa and Frank Wedekind—between medieval and modern times, the many personalities who ambitiously built assured that centuries of history would be preserved in the castle’s architecture.
It was then leased several times: 1823 to Christian Lipppe who established a boarding school. Upon Lippe’s death (1853) the canton sold the castle to private owners: Friedrich Wedekind, father of poet Frank Wedekind. A. E. Jessup. In 1956 Lenzburg Castle had been mentioned in American Newspapers. I had paid little attention to family members talking about it. When I went to Switzerland in 2002, I wanted to know what had taken place at Lenzburg castle in 1956.
Americans James W. Ellsworth, (wealthy mine owner) first bought the Castle from Canton Aargau. Upon his death his son became the new owner. Lincoln Ellsworth made expeditions to the north and south Poles. He was an American icon. Almost anything about him made the USA newspapers. After his death the Canton of Aargau purchased the castle from Lincoln Ellsworth’s widow in 1956.
The castle is situated on a hill formed from molasses rock which rises at the beginning of one of the flat Aare’s (river) side valleys leading toward the lake of Hallwil. Lenzburg’s strategical key is that it guards the Aare Valley and controls the ways between Aarau and Freiamt and from Freiamt to Brugg/Windsch. Many rulers took advantage of this dominant situation. The ruling domains between the 11th century and the end of the 18th century looked upon the castle as a significant strategical focal point. After the extinction of the probable builders, the counts of Lenzburg, the fortress was taken over in 1173 by the Hohenstaufens and then from their hand—first on loan, later ownership—it passed into the hands of the Kyburgers. The extinction of this family brought the Habsburg heirs into the castle’s history.
Feudal ownership ended in 1415 with the conquest of Aargau by the Swiss Confederation. The Bernese regime used the castle for 350 years as living quarters for the bailiff until 1798 when Napoleon’s army sealed the fate of Switzerland. In 1804 the Helvetian populace claimed the abandoned castle for the newly formed canton Aargau.
Today it belongs to one of canton Aargau’s several public monuments. It should not be visited as historical public monuments. The large complex has been made available for many different cultural activities: the placement of the cantonal Historical museum within the castle’s premises, creation of a meeting place for culture and encounters, forums, symposiums, and allowing concerts and parties to take place. A castle with a manifold range of activities is a magnet for very differently motivated visitors and to a wide range of interest groups.